Task 1 : Write a blog post covering your research into the following areas of the TV industry using the library or internet as well as your peers knowledge find out about:
Unit 8: Understanding the Television and Film Industry – Task 1
Ownership – Concentration of media ownership is a process where progressively fewer individuals or organisations control increasing shares of the mass media. For example, the BBC is state owned, the taxpayers fund it and it doesn’t have private owners or shareholders. Around the world there are different types of state ownership, in China the government directly controls media content, this mean that the media is effectively state owned and run, however the BBC, even though it is overseen by a board of governors who have a degree of independence from both the state and the direct political control, even though they are appointed by the government.
Private ownership just means that a family, individual, or shareholders own a company.
Commercial, Private and independent companies – Channel 4 is a publicly owned, commercially funded public service broadcaster. They do not get any public funding; they are funded mostly by advertising and sponsorship.
John Lewis is a privately owned company, and the employees together own 100% of its shares.
Independent companies are free from outside control; in most cases these companies are restaurants, or small stores, such as sweet shops or cooking stores.
Global Companies – Global companies, are recognised by almost every country, some of these companies are, BP, Shell, HSBC, Bank of China, Apple, Toyota and General Electric.
Global companies could be owned by the state, publicly or privately. Most ‘global companies gain a revenue of over 100 Billion US dollars. The most common industry is oil and gas (21 companies), Automotive (7 companies), Conglomerate (6 companies), retail (5 companies).
Vertical and Horizontal Integration – Horizontal integration is a strategy where a company creates or acquires production units for outputs where are alike – either complementary or competitive. One example would be when a company acquires competitors in the same industry, doing the same stage production of the creation of a monopoly.
When a company expands its business into areas that are at different points on the same production path, such as when a manufacture owns its supplier and/ or distributor. Such as ;making merchandise, advertising and social media.
-The exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity or service. “The state’s monopoly of radio and television broadcasting”
– A company or group having exclusive control over a commodity or service. “Passenger services were largely in the hands of state-owned monopolies”
-The exclusive possession, control, or exercise of something. “Men don’t have a monopoly on unrequited love”
Task 1 : How would I use the terms above in my own production?
By looking at all of the definitions above and thinking about my own promo, there are many ways that I could use each term. For example, with the Rugby club I can say that it a publicly owned/ funded organization that provides a public service. Look at merchandise for vertical integration. However it would be hard to use the global companies term as the promo is for a local sporting club.
Task 2 : In a separate blog post, explore funding within the film and television industries by producing one mind map to cover feature film funding, and one to cover television funding; include a definition of the following terms and at least one reference to the industry they belong to:
Unit 8: Understanding the Television and Film Industry – Task 2
Television and Film Funding
Licence Fee – The annual cost of a colour TV licence is £145, and black and white TV is around £49. (Numbers from 1st April 2010). The BBC use the income from the licence fee’s to pay for their broadcasting rights on TV, Radio and Online Services. Everyone needs to have own a licence fee for anything that can steam TV or record anything.
Subscription – This is where customers pay a monthly fee to have access to private broadcasters such as; Sky and Virgin Media.
Pay-Per-View – A type of TV service that allows the subscriber to pay for TV that they want. It often includes, feature films, sports and events. They can pay for these by using an on-screen guide, automated phone system, or live customer service. This is different to video on demand systems, which allows you to record broadcasts at any time.
Sponsorship – TV sponsorship allows the program or channel to have extra funding, for example, X-Factor uses ‘Talk Talk as a sponsor. This is shown before the program and after. It can be a cheap way of advertising on TV.
Advertising – Advertising revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. It allows a company or channel to show what they can offer the customer. Adverts take place between almost every program and film, there are some broadcasting channels that don’t have advert breaks during a program, the most common example of this is the BBC.
Product Placement – During a scene there might be a product that you know or like, this is called product placement. Companies will pay the film or program to feature their product, for example, in James Bond: Skyfall, Heineken is heavily placed throughout the film, and in Modern Family, Apple products are used. This makes the viewer want to spend money on the products they see.
Private Capital – When a wealthy individual or group to people help to fund a program or film, this mostly found in Hollywood directors or producers when they help to fund a film they are heavily involved with.
Funding Aid – When someone like the government gives money to a broadcaster, program or film, so that they can keep producing it. Channel 4 receives no public funding. It is funded entirely by its own commercial activities, most of their income comes from advertising revenue.
Development Funds – The Programming Development Fund is designed to help film programmers and exhibitors put together programs of films which will be enhanced or underpinned by curation, interpretation or education activity, (where money is given to make a production better).
Task 2 : Television and Film Industry Funding Mind Maps
Unit 8: Understanding the Television and Film Industry – Task 3
In creative media industries, we experience a variety of working patterns. In pairs record a 5-minute radio programme about this discussing the following terms, and how they relate to the film and television industry. Shift work, freelance, fixed term, office hours, irregular patterns, hourly rates and methods of recruitment.
Freelance; a self-employed person who can be hired by a company to do some work for them at a fixed rate. Mostly seen in Camera Men and editors.
Shift Work; designed to help run a 24-hour company, a shift might be 12 hours on 12 hours off. Or 6 hours at a time? – Callum to talk.
Fixed term; can range for any amount of time 2 weeks, 2 months, 2 years. It is where the employee and the employer have a contract theta allows the employer to make a decision to keep the employee after that set term.
Office hours; the hours which businesses are normally constructed, usually being 9-5, these hours can be different for the different type of work, office job, to super market, etc.
Hourly rates; the amount of money that has been stated by the employer in the contract to the employee. For example £6.50 per hour, you will be paid per week or per month. Some people are on a salary rather than an hourly rate. Most part-time workers are on an hourly rate.
Irregular patterns; this can be when a retired employee can be called back to work in emergencies to cover for sickness or something else like that. Another pattern like this can be a specialist tradesperson who is employed only when they are needed in their field. (Such as repairing a broken machine).
Methods of recruitment; (National press, trade press, internet, word of mouth, internal promotion, networking, trade and fairs skills).
Companies use a variety methods to advertise their job vacancies. These range from, press, Internet and TV advertising. This allows people to find the job position easily. In a paper the there is usually a job section that people will look at to find out what they want, these adverts have a phone number or website to apply on. Television adverts during ad breaks of programs will show people possible jobs, this is less common. Internet advertising lets people go onto the website of a company and see if there are any jobs available then upload a CV. Window advertising is most commonly seen in high street shops, saying drop your CV in to the manager or call this number. Film and TV industry. Mostly word of mouth recommendations.
Task 3: Record a 5-minute radio programme
Task 3: Look into at least 5 different roles within the TV and Film industry. One of these should be in an area that you would eventually like to end up working in. Find definitions and examples of management roles; creative jobs; editorial positions; technical roles; research jobs; financial roles; organisational jobs; and administrative jobs. Create a PowerPoint presentation about these roles.